Please find below a list of the terminology used when discussing your conditions and procedures. Of course, if you have any other questions, please do not hesitate to ask.


A Surgeon specialising only in the Uro-genital tract. Therefore all the organs associated with the production, conveying and storage of urine, including continence thereof. Urology also includes the male sexual organs and function thereof.



Kidneys are the paired bean-shaped organs responsible for filtration and cleansing of your blood. They produce urine.


Adrenal gland

A small gland above each kidney responsible for hormones that help with metabolism, growth, fear-and-fight.



Kidney pipes/tubes leading urine from the kidney to the bladder.



Also known by its Latin word the Cyst or Vesico which means a fluid-containing sac or organ. Its function is to store and expel urine.



The tube that conveys urine from the bladder to the opening of the bladder pipe (meatus).


Vero Montanum

The opening of the ejaculatory ducts in the prostatic urethra.


Seminal Vesicles

Small paired ducts behind the prostate and bladder, where the ejaculate is stored. Fructose is produced to feed the sperm cells.



Opening of the urethra, tip of the penis in males and between the clitoris and vaginal opening in females.



Male sexual organ, with 2 functions: a pointer for urination and sexual organ to facilitate procreation.



2 oval organs found in the scrotum responsible for male fertility. Produces sperm.



The sac below the penis containing the male testes. Also regulated temperature for optimal sperm production.



The area between scrotum and anus.



An accessory male sexual organ found below the bladder and above your external sphincter (pincher). It sits around the urethra with glandular tubes opening in the urethra. Produces the seminal fluid which helps to create a medium in which the sperm is nurtured for fertilisation.



Prostate-Specific Antigen is an enzyme produced by the prostate which takes the ejaculate from a clotted to flow-able form helping with fertilisation.


Lymph nodes


Small glands found in strategic places in the body that drain all lymph (clean-up fluid). Most cancers drain to the regional lymph nodes.



The female sexual organ as well as the birth canal facilitating the passage of the mature fetus during childbirth.



Umbrella cells that line the inside of bladder, ureters and renal pelvis as well as the urethra up to the distal urethra.



The prolapse of the bladder through the front vaginal wall to such a degree that it influences urination and bladder emoications.



The prolapse of small bowel through the top of the vagina or back wall, being symptomatic.


Vault Prolapse

The top of a previously hysterectomised vagina inverting and pushing to the outside of the vagina.



A fully inverted vagina prolapsing outside the vagina. This could potentially be a dangerous situation and requires urgent review.



The prolapse or herniation of the back wall of the vagina containing the rectum influencing defecation.



Looking inside the bladder with a camera.



Looking up the ureters via the bladder.



Computed Tomography (Scan) using intravenous dye. An Intravenous Pyelogram is done. The radiographic contrast medium is injected through your veins and is taken in your circulation. It is then excreted by your kidneys which is then the pyelogram. It also delineates the kidneys, collecting systems and ureters.

Indwelling Urethral Catheter

A latex or silicone tube secured in the bladder with a balloon filled with water. Used to drain urine. Usually short-term use yet can be used long-term 8 weeks at a stretch.


Suprapubic Catheter


A catheter placed 2 cm above the pubic bone. Usually for longterm use as with patients with spinal injuries.



Intermittent self-catheterisation. Where a catheter is used to empty the bladder on a regular basis where there is a neurological problem causing the inability to empty the bladder.



Intermittent self dilatation: Usually where there is a narrowing in the urethra where a conservative approach is used in treating is with daily dilation using a catheter.



Lower urinary tract symptoms consisting of voiding and storage symptoms such as a slow stream, hesitancy, interrupted stream, nocturia, frequency, urgency, etc.



Benign prostate enlargement with or without LUTS symptoms.



Getting up more than once per night to urinate specifically.



Having to use the toilet more than 8 times per day.



A sudden uncontrollable desire to urinate, with fear of incontinence.


D’Amico risk stratification for prostate cancer


Low risk:


Gleason 3,3;

PSA < 10


Intermediary risk:


Gleason 3,4; 4,3

PSA 10-20


High risk:


Gleason 4,4

PSA > 20



A radiological study where an indwelling catheter is present on the bladder or may be placed in the bladder to administer radiological contrast to asses the anatomy of the bladder, exclude vesicoureteric reflux, posterior urethral valves in kids and to asses the vesicourethral anastomosis after radical prostatectomy.


Lying on your back.



Lying face down.



Lying with your legs up, knees and hips flexed in a 90-degree angle.



Lithotomy position with the hips flexed more resulting in the pelvis tilting further forward.


Lateral position

Lying on your side with a 45degree angle with the bed.



An electrocautery in which both active and return electrodes are incorporated into a single handheld instrument, so that the current passes between the tips of the two electrodes and affects only a small amount of tissue.



An electrocautery in which current is applied through a handheld active electrode and travels back to the generator through an inactive electrode attached to the patient (the grounding pad) so that the patient is part of the electrical circuit.


Laser Vaporisation

The process of removing material from a solid (or occasionally liquid) surface by irradiating it with a laser beam.



Trans Rectal Ultrasound guided Prostate visualisation and guided prostate biopsies.


Fudicial Marker

Usually, a gold seed that is placed via TRUS in the prostate to mark the peripheral areas of the prostate enabling safe radiation.

Prophylactic Antibiotics

Antibiotics that are given before surgery to prevent infection.


Anti-coagulation therapy

Therapy with Warfarin or Clexane working on the clotting cascade.


Anti-platelet therapy

Medications such as Asprin and Plavix that disables the function of platelets.


Laparoscopic Procedure

A procedure is done with intra-abdominal cameras and ports, a minimally invasive technique.


Open Surgery

A cut of variable lengths made to access any urological organ to facilitate treatment.


Endoscopic Procedure

A camera procedure of the internal aspects of the bladder, prostate ureters and kidney. Usually done through the natural orifice of the urethra, occasionally through a puncture site through the back into the kidney.


General anaesthesia

The Anaesthetist will put you to sleep and also paralyse your muscles and support your breathing using a ventilator.


Regional anaesthesia

A part of your body, usually the lower half of your body is paralysed and desensitised using a spinal injection of a local anaesthetic (Spinal / Epidural).